Some of my tips working on Unix OS

How to call explorer GUI in Linux?

Run a console a call the command nautilus.

How to remote copy files/folder between Linux computers?

google: linux + remote copy ->

Use scp: (more simple)
scp file2Copy username@hostIP:targetPath
after calling the above command, u’ll be asked for username/password.
scp -r folder2Copy username@hostIP:targetPath

Use rcp:
There it said u need to have .rhosts file in home folder that have lines where each line is :
<the host ip/computer name> <username>

Then, call rcp to copy files as sample :
rcp myLocalFile hostname:targetFile

How to change shell-prompt ‘s color?

google: lprocess + view memory used + linux ->   Process memory usage –

ps -AH v

How to change shell-prompt ‘s color?

google: linux + command line -> some begginer site to input keyword-space to my knowledge -> shell prompt
google: linux + shell prompt + color -> Tip: Prompt magic

Prompt basics

Under bash, you can set your prompt by changing the value of the PS1
environment variable, as follows:

$ export PS1="> "

Changes take effect immediately, and can be made permanent by placing
the "export" definition in your ~/.bashrc file. PS1 can contain any
amount of plain text that you’d like:

$ export PS1="This is my super prompt > "
This is my super prompt >

While this is, um, interesting, it’s not exactly useful to have a
prompt that contains lots of static text. Most custom prompts
contain information like the current username, working directory, or
hostname. These tidbits of information can help you to navigate in
your shell universe. For example, the following prompt will display
your username and hostname:

$ export PS1="\u@\H > "
drobbins@freebox >




 Your username


 Current working directory (such as "/home/drobbins")


Colors are selected by adding special sequences to PS1 — basically
sandwiching numeric values between a "\e[" (escape open-bracket) and
an "m". If we specify more than one numeric code, we separate each
code with a semicolon. Here’s an example color code:


When we specify a zero as a numeric code, it tells the terminal to reset
foreground, background, and boldness settings to their default values.
You’ll want to use this code at the end of your prompt, so that the text
that you type in is not colorized. Now, let’s take a look at
the color codes. Check out this screenshoot:

Color chart
Color chartaa

export PS1="\w> "


export PS1="\e[32;40m\w> "

So far, so good, but it’s not perfect yet. After bash prints the working
directory, we need to set the color back to normal with a "\e[0m" sequence:

export PS1="\e[32;40m\w> \e[0m"

definition will give you a nice, green prompt, but we still need to add
a few finishing touches. We don’t need to include the background color
of 40, since that sets the background to black which is the default
anyway. Also, the green color is quite dim; we can fix this by adding a
"1" color code, which enables brighter, bold text. In addition to this
change, we need to surround all non-printing
characters with special bash escape sequences, "\[" and "\]".
sequences will tell bash that the enclosed characters don’t take up any
space on the line, which will allow word-wrapping to continue to work
properly. Without them, you’ll end up with a nice-looking prompt that
mess up the screen if you happen to type in a command that approaches
extreme right of the terminal. Here’s our final prompt:

export PS1="\[\e[32;1m\]\w> \[\e[0m\]"

Don’t be afraid to use several colors in the same prompt, like so:

export PS1="\[\e[36;1m\]\u@\[\e[32;1m\]\H> \[\e[0m\]"

Bash allows these prompt strings  to  be  customized by inserting a number of backslash-escaped special
characters that are decoded as follows:
\a an ASCII bell character (07)
\d the date in "Weekday Month Date" format
(e.g., "Tue May 26")
\e an ASCII escape character (033)
\h the hostname up to the first `.'
\H the hostname
\j the number of jobs currently managed by the
\l the basename of the shell's terminal device
\n newline
\r carriage return
\s the name of the shell, the basename of $0
(the portion following the final slash)
\t the current time in 24-hour HH:MM:SS format
\T the current time in 12-hour HH:MM:SS format
\@ the current time in 12-hour am/pm format
\u the username of the current user
\v the version of bash (e.g., 2.00)
\V the release of bash, version + patchlevel
(e.g., 2.00.0)
\w the current working directory
\W the basename of the current working directory
\! the history number of this command
\# the command number of this command
\$ if the effective UID is 0, a #, otherwise a
\nnn the character corresponding to the octal
number nnn
\\ a backslash
\[ begin a sequence of non-printing characters,
which could be used to embed a terminal control sequence into the prompt
\] end a sequence of non-printing characters

To have this prompt permanently, put the command : export PS1="blabla" in .bashrc file (located in your home folder)
My extracted script:

#The followings set the prompt to show username workingFolder with color
export PS1="\[$boldGreen\]\u\[$default$green\] \w $ \[$default\]"


How to search & replace on multiple files on Linux OS ?

google:Linux + search and replace multiple files -> Search and replace over file(s) with Perl [linux] [perl] [replace] [search]

They use sed command with inline option and using expression (regular expr.) as :
i e s/source/destination/g *.html

More detail on sed?

google:Linux + sed command -> sed – Linux Command – Unix Command

How to rename multiple files on Linux OS ?

Source: google: linux rename multiple files -> Howto Linux rename multiple files at a shell prompt

Syntax :

rename oldText newText *.files

For example rename all *.bak file as *.txt, enter:

$ rename .bak .txt *.bak

Remove all blank space with rename command:
$ rename "s/ *//g" *.mp3

To remove .jpg file extension, you write command as follows:

$ rename ‘s/\.jpg$//’ *.jpg

To convert all uppercase filenames to lowercase:
$ rename 'y/A-Z/a-z/' *

How to get numbers of lines of a huge file?

Source: google: linux shell command + "concatenate string" -> concatenate strings – Linux Forums
There, u can see that we can easily concatenate string by putting variables/strings next to each other.

How to get numbers of lines of a huge file?

Source: my professor Jean Pierre Chevallet -> wc -l <filename2CountLines>

Call the wc command with -l option : wc -l <filename>

How to get memory (RAM) size in Linux OS system by command line?

I need to know the memory size, RAM size, of the server which is a Linux OS. I look on the web and found this quite not easy since the input keyword must be precise.

cat /proc/meminfo
There u can see the line that says: MemFree : ### kB (or mB) is where the free memory is showed.

For a brief information output let’s used :

cat /proc/meminfo | grep MemFree
This will show only the MemFree line! What a command!

Next, we can output the result of free memory size :

  • to a file by cat /proc/meminfo | grep MemFree > outputFile
  • to output it into a Perl varible see it here.

How to start a program, e.g Kate, in background ?

Source: google:unix + background + start -> Working With the Unix Shell

Just put an & after ur command will make the ‘kate’ run background.

What is the useful programs used on Linux ?

I myself use :

  • Kate as the code/text(e.g Perl) editor
  • and Krusader as the files browser.
  • More over, I used the SSH Secure Shell from to transfer file between Windows XP and Linux and reversely.


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